Important Formulas

Some of these Formulas may not be applicable for BFM, but I request all of you to go through all of them to understand the concepts clear for both ABM and BFM.
1. Raw material Turnover Ratio = Cost of RM used / Average stock of R M
2. SIP Turnover = Cost of Goods manufactured / Average stock of SIP
3. Debt Collection period = No. days or months or Weeks in a year/Debt Turnover Ratio.
4. Average Payment Period = No. days or months or Weeks in a year/Creditors Turnover Ratio.
5. Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory.
6. Debtors Turnover Ratio = Net Credit Sales / Average Debtors.
7. Creditors Turnover Ratio = Net Credit Purchases / Average Credits.
8. Defensive Interval Ratio = Liquid Assets / Projected Daily Cash Requirement
9. Projected daily cash requirement = Projected operating cash expenses / 365.
10. Debt Equity Ratio = Long Term Debt / Equity.
11. Debt Equity Ratio = Total outside Liability / Tangible Net Worth.
12. Debt to Total Capital Ratio = Total Debts or Total Assets/(Permanent Capital + Current Liabilities)
13. Interest Coverage Ratio = EBIT / Interest.
14. Dividend Coverage Ratio = N. P. after Interest & Tax / Preferential dividend
15. Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit / Net Sales * 100
16. Net Profit Margin = Net Profit / Net Sales * 100
17. Cost of Goods Sold Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Net Sales * 100.
18. Operating Profit Ratio = Earnings Before Interest Tax / Net Sales * 100
19. Expenses Ratio or Operating Ratio = Expenses / Net Sales * 100
20. Net Profit Ratio = Net Profit After interest and Tax / Net Sales * 100
21. Operating Expenses Ratio = (Administrative + Selling expenses) / Net Sales * 100
22. Administrative Expenses Ratio =(Administrative Expenses / Net Sales ) * 100
23. Selling Expenses Ratio =(Selling Expenses / Net Sales ) * 100
24. Financial Expenses Ratio = ( Financial Expenses / Net Sales ) * 100
25. Return on Assets = Net Profit After Tax / Total Assets.
26. Total Assets = Net Fixed Assets + Net Working Capital.
27. Net Fixed Assets = Total Fixed Assets – Accumulated Depreciation.
28. Net Working Capital = ( CA –CL ) – ( Intangible Assets + Fictitious Assets + Idle Stock + Bad Debts )
29. Return on Capital Employed = Net Profit Before Interest and Tax / Average Capital Employed.
30. Average Capital employed = Equity Capital + Long Term Funds provided by Owners & Creditors at the beginning & at the end of the accounting period divided by two.
31. Return on Ordinary Share Holders Equity = (NPAT – Preferential Dividends) / Average Ordinary Share Holders Equity or Net Worth.
32. Earnings Per Share = Net Profit After Taxes and Preferential dividends / Number of Equity Share.
33. Dividend per Share = Net Profit After Taxes and distributable dividend / Number of Equity Shares.
34. Dividend Pay Out Ratio = Dividend per Equity Share / Earnings per Equity Share.
35. Dividend Pay Out Ratio = Dividend paid to Equity Share holders / Net Profit available for Equity Share Holders.
36. Price Earning Ratio = Market Price per equity Share / Earning per Share.
37. Total Asset Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Total Assets.
38. Fixed Asset Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Fixed Assets.
39. Capital Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Capital employed.
40. Current Asset Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Current Assets.
41. Working Capital Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Net Working Capital.
42. Return on Net Worth = ( Net Profit / Net Worth ) * 100
43. DSCR = Profit after Tax & Depreciation + Int. on T L & Differed Credit + Lease Rentals if any divided by Repayment of Interest & Installments on T L & Differed Credits + Lease Rentals if any.
44. Factory Cost = Prime cost + Production Overheads.
45. Cost of Goods Sold = Factory Cost + Selling, distribution & administrative overheads
46. Contribution = Sales – Marginal Costs.
47. Percentage of contribution to sales = ( Contribution / Sales ) * 100
48. Break Even Analysis = F / ( 1 – VC / S )
F = Fixed costs, VC = Total variable operating costs & S = Total sales revenue
49. Break Even Margin or Margin of Safety = Sales – Break Even Point / Sales.
50. Cash Break Even = F – N / P – R or F – N / 1 – ( VC / S )
51. BEP = Fixed Costs / Contribution per unit.
52. Sales volume requires = Fixed cost + Required profit / Contribution per unit.
53. BEP in Sales = ( Fixed Costs / Contribution per unit ) * Price per unit.
54. Contribution Sales Ratio = ( Contribution per unit / Sale price per unit ) * 100
55. Level of sales to result in target profit after Tax = (Target Profit) / (1 – Tax rate / Contribution per unit)
56. Level of sales to result in target profit = (Fixed Cost + Target profit) * sales price per unit Contribution per unit.
57. Net Present Value =  Co + C1 / (1 + r)
58. Future expected value of a present cash flow = Cash Flow ( 1 + r ) ^ t
59. Present value of a simple future cash flow = Cash Flow / (1 + r) ^ t
60. The Discount Factor = 1 / (1 + r) ^ t
61. Notation used internationally for PV of an annuity is PV ( A, r, n )
62. Notation used internationally for FV of an annuity is FV ( A, r, n )
63. The effective annual rate = ( 1 + r ) ^ t – 1 or (1 + (r / N) ) – 1 )
N = Number of times compounding in a year
64. PV of end of period Annuity = A { (1 (1 / (1+r) ^ n) / r
65. CR = CA : CL
66. Net Worth = CA  CL
67. DER = TL/TNW or debt/equity or TL/equity
68. Price Elasticity of Supply = (% change in quantity supplied/(% change in price)
69. PV = P / R * [(1+R)^T  1]/(1+R)^T
70. PV = P / (1+R)^T
71. FV = P * (1 + R)^T
72. FV = P*(1R)^T
73. FV = P / R * [(1+R)^T  1]
74. FV = P / R * [(1+R)^T  1] * (1+R)
75. EMI = P * R * [(1+R)^T/(1+R)^T1)]
76. FV of annuity = A/r ×{(1+r)^n1}
77. Bond Price = (1/(1+R)^t)((coupon*((1+R)^t1)/R)+Face Value)
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